Accused shall mean a person accused of a violation who has not yet entered the student conduct process.
Advisor is any individual who provides the accused or victim/survivor with support, guidance and/or advice.
Affirmative consent is a knowing, voluntary and mutual decision among all participants to engage in sexual activity. Consent can be given by words or actions, as long as those words or actions create clear permission regarding willingness to engage in the sexual activity. Silence or lack of resistance, in and of itself, does not demonstrate consent. The definition of consent does not vary based upon a participant's sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, or gender expression. Consent to any sexual act or prior consensual sexual activity between or with any party does not necessarily constitute consent to any other sexual act. Consent is required regardless of whether the person initiating the act is under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol. Consent may be initially given but withdrawn at any time. Consent cannot be given when a person is incapacitated, which occurs when an individual lacks the ability to knowingly choose to participate in sexual activity. Incapacitation may be caused by the lack of consciousness or being asleep, being involuntarily restrained, or if an individual otherwise cannot consent. Depending on the degree of intoxication, someone who is under the influence of alcohol, drugs, or other intoxicants may be incapacitated and therefore unable to consent. Consent cannot be given when it is the result of any coercion, intimidation, force, or threat of harm. When consent is withdrawn or can no longer be given, sexual activity must stop.
Amnesty: The Policy for Alcohol and/or Drug Use Amnesty in Sexual and Interpersonal Violence Cases states that the health and safety of every student at the State University of New York and its State-operated and community colleges is of utmost importance. SUNY Oswego recognizes that students who have been drinking and/or using drugs (whether such use is voluntary or involuntary) at the time that violence, including but not limited to domestic violence, dating violence, stalking, or sexual assault occurs may be hesitant to report such incidents due to fear of potential consequences for their own conduct. SUNY Oswego strongly encourages students to report incidents of domestic violence, dating violence, stalking, or sexual assault to institution officials. A bystander acting in good faith or a reporting individual acting in good faith that discloses any incident of domestic violence, dating violence, stalking, or sexual assault to SUNY Oswego officials or law enforcement will not be subject to SUNY Oswego's code of conduct action for violations of alcohol and/or drug use policies occurring at or near the time of the commission of the domestic violence, dating violence, stalking, or sexual assault.
Annual Fire and Security Report (Clery Act) requires colleges and universities that participate in federal financial aid programs to report annual statistics on crime, including sexual assault and rape, on or near the campus, and to develop and disseminate prevention policies.
Article 129-A (New York State Education Law) requires all New York State public colleges to maintain policies related to specific provisions of this Article. General provisions include the advisory committee on campus security, sexual assault, domestic violence and stalking prevention information, campus crime reporting and statistics, investigation of violent felony offenses, bias related crime prevention information, prohibition on the marketing of credit cards, and notification of fire safety standards and measures in all college-owned or college-operated housing.
Article 129B (Enough is Enough) requires all colleges in New York State to adopt a set of comprehensive procedures and guidelines to address sexual violence, including a uniform definition of affirmative consent, a statewide amnesty policy, and expanded access to law enforcement.
Bystander shall mean a person who observes a crime, impending crime, conflict, potentially violent or violent behavior, or conduct that is in violation of rules or policies of an institution. Bystander intervention is when a bystander’s safe and positive actions to prevent harm or intervene when there is a risk posed to another person. Bystander intervention includes recognizing situations of potential harm, identifying safe and effective intervention options, and taking action to intervene.
Bystander intervention is when a bystander’s safe and positive actions prevent harm or intervene when there is a risk posed to another person. Bystander intervention includes recognizing situations of potential harm, identifying safe and effective intervention options, and taking action to intervene.
Clery Act: The Jeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act or Clery Act is a federal statute (20 U.S.C. §1092(f)) that requires colleges and universities that participate in federal financial aid programs to keep and disclose statistics about crime on or near their campuses. Compliance is monitored by the U.S. Department of Education.
Coercion is defined for purposes of this section as the application of unreasonable pressure to take part in sexual activity or in any of the prohibited conduct listed in this document. Unreasonable pressure can be exerted through physical or emotional force, intimidation, misuse of authority, or outright threats. When someone makes it clear that he or she does not want to engage in sexual activity or does not want to go beyond a certain point of sexual interaction, continued pressure beyond that point may be considered coercive. Ignoring or dismissing the objections of another person may also be a form of coercion.
Code of conduct shall mean the written policies adopted by an institution governing student behavior, rights, and responsibilities while such student is matriculated in the institution.
College means State University of New York at Oswego, Oswego, New York, and collectively, those persons responsible for its control and operation.
Confidentiality may be offered by an individual who is not required by law to report known incidents of sexual assault or other crimes to institution officials, in a manner consistent with State and Federal law, including but not limited to 20 U.S.C. 1092(f) and 20 U.S.C. 1681(a). Licensed mental health counselors, medical providers and pastoral counselors are examples of institution employees who may offer confidentiality.
Dating violence is any violent act or acts committed by a person who is or has been in a social relationship of a romantic or intimate nature with the victim. Violence includes, but is not limited to, sexual or physical abuse or the threat of such abuse. The existence of a social relationship of a romantic or intimate nature with the victim is determined based on the reporting party's statement, the length of the relationship, the type of relationship, and frequency of interaction between the persons involved in the relationship.
Domestic violence is a felony or misdemeanor crime of violence committed by any of the following individuals: current or former spouse or intimate partner of the victim; or a person with whom the victim shares a child in common; or a person who is cohabitating with or has cohabitated with the victim as a spouse or intimate partner; or a person similarly situated to a spouse of the victim under the domestic or family laws of the jurisdiction in which the crime of violence occurred; New York domestic or family violence laws or by any other person against an adult or youth victim who is protected from that person's acts under the domestic or family violence laws of New York.
Incapacitation occurs when an individual lacks the ability to fully, knowingly choose to participate in sexual activity. Incapacitation includes impairment due to drugs or alcohol (whether such use is voluntary or involuntary), the lack of consciousness or being asleep, being involuntarily restrained, if any of the parties are under the age of 17, or if an individual otherwise cannot consent. (See full Affirmative Consent definition above)
Institution shall mean any college or university chartered by the regents or incorporated by special act of the legislature that maintains a campus in New York.
Interim measures remedies, supportive measures and accommodations that effect a change in academic, housing, employment, transportation, or other applicable arrangements in order to ensure safety, prevent retaliation, and avoid an ongoing hostile environment.
Preponderance of the evidence is the standard of proof in sexual and interpersonal violence cases, which asks whether it is “more likely than not” that the violence occurred. If the evidence presented meets this standard, then the accused should be found responsible.
Privacy may be offered by an individual when such individual is unable to offer confidentiality under the law but shall still not disclose information learned from a reporting individual or bystander to a crime or incident more than necessary to comply with this and other applicable laws, including informing appropriate Institution officials. Institutions may substitute another relevant term having the same meaning, as appropriate to the policies of the Institution.
Proceeding refers to the activities related to an institutional disciplinary complaint, including but not limited to fact finding investigations, formal or informal meetings, hearings and appeals.
Reporting individual shall encompass the terms victim, survivor, complainant, claimant, witness with victim status and any other term used by an institution to reference an individual who brings forth a report of a violation.
Respondent shall mean a person accused of a violation who has entered the student conduct process.
Responsible employee is an employee with the authority to redress sexual and interpersonal violence; who has been given the duty of reporting incidents of sexual violence or any other misconduct by students to the Title IX Coordinator or other appropriate school designee; or whom a student could reasonably believe has this authority or duty.
Result means any initial, interim and final decision by any College official or entity authorized to resolve disciplinary matters within the institution. Students who are found responsible for sexual assault, dating violence or domestic violence will be suspended or expelled. Students found in violation of sexual harassment or stalking will be either placed on disciplinary probation, suspended or expelled. Students that are placed on disciplinary probation or suspended may be sanctioned intervention services, restrictions from accessing college or community buildings, and educational programs.
Retaliation is adverse action against another person for reporting a violation or for participating in any way in the investigation or conduct process. Retaliation includes harassment and intimidation, including but not limited to violence, threats of violence, property destruction, adverse educational or employment consequences, and bullying.
SaVE Act: The SaVE Act is an acronym for the Campus Sexual Violence Act provision of the 2013 reauthorized Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act (VAWA). The SaVE Act provision, Section 304, requires colleges and universities to report domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking beyond the crime categories the Clery Act already mandates; adopt certain student conduct procedures, such as for notifying victims of their rights; and adopt training protocols and policies to address and prevent campus sexual violence.
Sexual act means:
A. contact between the penis and the vulva or the penis and the anus, and for purposes of this subparagraph contact involving the penis occurs upon penetration, however slight;
B. contact between the mouth and the penis, the mouth and the vulva, or the mouth and the anus;
C. the penetration, however slight, of the anal or genital opening of another by a hand or finger or by any object, with an intent to abuse, humiliate, harass, degrade, or arouse or gratify the sexual desire of any person; or
D. the intentional touching, not through the clothing, of the genitalia of another person who has not attained the age of 17 years with an intent to abuse, humiliate, harass, degrade, or arouse or gratify the sexual desire of any person;
Sexual activity shall have the same meaning as “sexual act” and “sexual contact” as provided in 18 U.S.C. 2246(2) and 18 U.S.C. 2246(3).
Sexual assault/Sexual violence is physical sexual act perpetrated against a person’s will or where a person is incapable of giving consent. Such acts include, but are not limited to, rape, sexual battery, and sexual coercion.
Sexual contact means the intentional touching, either directly or through the clothing, of the genitalia, anus, groin, breast, inner thigh, or buttocks of any person with an intent to abuse, humiliate, harass, degrade, or arouse or gratify the sexual desire of any person.”
Sex discrimination includes all forms of: sexual harassment, sexual assault, and sexual violence by employees, students, or third parties against employees, students, or third parties. Students, College employees, and third parties are prohibited from harassing other students and/or employees whether or not the incidents of harassment occur on the College campus and whether or not the incidents occur during working hours. All acts of sex discrimination, including sexual harassment and sexual violence, are prohibited by Title IX.
Sexual exploitation occurs when a person takes non-consensual or abusive sexual advantage of another for his/her own advantage or benefit, or to benefit or advantage anyone other than the one being exploited, and that behavior does not otherwise constitute one of other sexual misconduct offenses. Examples of sexual exploitation include, but are not limited to: invasion of sexual privacy; prostituting another student; non-consensual video or audio-taping of sexual activity; going beyond the boundaries of consent (such as letting your friends hide in the closet to watch you having consensual sex); engaging in voyeurism; knowingly transmitting an STI or HIV to another student; exposing one’s genitals in non-consensual circumstances; inducing another to expose their genitals; sexually-based stalking and/or bullying may also be forms of sexual exploitation.
Sexual harassment is unwelcome, gender-based verbal or physical conduct that is sufficiently severe, persistent or pervasive that it unreasonably interferes with, denies or limits someone’s ability to participate in or benefit from the university’s educational program and/or activities, and is based on power differentials (quid pro quo), the creation of a hostile environment, or retaliation.
Stalking means intentionally engaging in a course of conduct, directed at a specific person, which is likely to causes a reasonable person to fear for his or her safety or the safety of others or cause that person to suffer substantial emotional damage. Examples include, but are not limited to, repeatedly following such person(s), repeatedly committing acts that alarm, cause fear, or seriously annoy such other person(s) and that serve no legitimate purpose, and repeatedly communicating by any means, including electronic means, with such person(s) in a manner likely to intimidate, annoy, or alarm him or her.
Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 prohibits any person in the United States from being discriminated against on the basis of sex in seeking access to any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance. The U.S. Department of Education, which enforces Title IX, has long defined the meaning of Title IX’s prohibition on sex discrimination broadly to include various forms of sexual harassment and sexual violence that interfere with a student’s ability to equally access our educational programs and opportunities.
Title IX Coordinator shall mean the Title IX Coordinator and/or his or her designee or designees. The Title IX Coordinator provides ongoing training, consultation, and technical assistance on Title IX (and related laws) for all students and employees. Title IX Investigators assist the Title IX Coordinator in responding to reports of sex discrimination, sexual harassment, sexual assault/violence, stalking, dating violence and domestic violence.
Victim/survivor: a person who suffers personal, physical, or psychological injury. These policies use “reporting individual” as encompassing the terms victim, survivor, complainant, claimant, witness with victim status, and any other term used by an institution to reference an individual who brings for a report of a violation.
Violence Against Women Act ("VAWA") Under The Violence Against Women Act, colleges and universities are required to: (1) report dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking, beyond crime categories the Clery Act already mandates; (2) adopt certain student discipline procedures, such as for notifying purported victims of their rights; and (3) adopt certain institutional policies to address and prevent campus sexual violence, such as to train in particular respects pertinent institutional personnel.